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Splashes – 70/72 – Hindu Rashtra is Human

After partition, we inherited British infrastructure of governance and by large have continued with the same. British rule, was also secular to proclaim. There were no reservations or appeasement for any category. Then:

  • What motivated us to replace British rulers at the cost of accepting partition of the country?
  • What motivated us to make sacrifices for attaining freedom?

The answer is only one – we wanted to govern ourselves, according to the ethics of our own Hindu ancestral values.

Secularism is Unethical Concept

The concept of secularism is colonial. The colonial powers initially converted the natives to Christianity, which often sparked violent resistance from them. Therefore, British rulers discovered a way out. They detached themselves from missionaries, and posed secular to legitimize their hold on colonized countries. Thus secular governments were established to mask political control over different faiths and lands all over the world including India.

Dictionary meaning of the word secular implies, “not being committed to ethics of any religion”. To Hindus, governance devoid of Dharma (ethics) is nothing but Adhama. In more explicit words it means unethical and opportunist pursuit of power. A government that is non-committal to the ethics of the population of the country is nothing but an autocrat mafia in power. Mafias are viewed secular.

Christianity in United Kingdom

Constitutionally, even secular governments across the globe in advanced countries, are also slanted towards the faith of the land. As back in fifteenth century, when Christianity was at its zenith, England restricted the interference of Roman Pope into national affairs of England. That resulted in emergence of Protestant Church, known as the Church of England. United Kingdom is a secular monarchy, but Monarch of England carries the title ‘defender of the Faith’. All customs and traditions concerning the state are Christianity oriented.

Hinduism is Universal Faith

Why did India proclaim to remain secular when Hinduism in itself is most adequate to the spiritual needs of the entire mankind? Hinduism is a perfect human religion that is concerned with the well being of all-living and non-living things in the environment.

Hinduism is a human faith in true spirit. It is open to introspection, adoption, and tolerance towards dissent, due to which all those who came to India were assimilated within the framework of Hinduism. It is a religion of fine synthesis of faith and Science. It has its own culture and civilization of most refined tastes. India exported advances made in every field of human knowledge. Hinduism assured in practice the right to live and let others also live in the environment under every geographical condition.

There are no fatwas or dictates from the clergy. Hinduism never indulged in destruction of non-believers or conversion of others to its fold. It has been the religion that preferred religious identity of a person on the basis of birth and practice, but kept its doors open to all those who volunteer to assimilate. It is a faith that propagated Vasudeva Kutambkum and treated entire universe as a large family, much before various nations actually knew the existence of each other. Hinduism was never confined to any particular area, or period of time.

 It is Religion of Early Man

Why we chose to have 1869 born politician declared as father of the nation? Our ancestral lineage started with Early Man, who could be remembered as Shiva or Adam. The ethical codes of Hindu religion were not dictated by any individual as per his whims, fancies or limitations, but emerged out of introspection, experimentation, and reviews made by learned Rishies and Sages of wisdom par excellence, and are still open to modification. All of us are descendants of those learned sages and not a result of parental sin.

Freedom of thought and Expression

Hindus are free to accept one, many or no God at all. They are free to view Him through symbols, idols, humanized forms, animal forms or through his own image in the mirror. God may be identified by any name or syllable, and can be approached directly by every one without reference of another intermediate. No animal is hated. Hindus never defaced items, places or scriptures of non-Hindu faiths.

As a Hindu, everyone is free to wear any dress and chose menu, subject to the constraints of local environment and decency. Similarly every Hindu is free to pick and chose the literature according to personal choice, in any language and script. Priests are superficial and can be dispensed at the choice of the individual.

New ideas and discoveries are welcome to replace outdated thoughts. What else was further needed, that we had to attach the tag of secularism in India?

Why Magnanimity of Hindus Ignored?

It was due to liberal attitude of Hindus, that even after having been profusely bled and destroyed; Hindus offered a brotherly hand of equality to live in India to those Muslims who had been responsible for the Hindu genocide.

Hindus were prepared to make a fresh start on a clean slate.  They had even de-linked themselves with the scary memories of the past. It was not only a mere gesture, but the sincerity was fully demonstrated by bringing back the post partition Muslim migrants to India and rehabilitating them with special treatment. What more was required to be secular from Hindus? Did we accept partition of the country to re-accommodate fundamentalists and keep them amused at their terms all the time?

Audit of Non Hindu Faiths Needed

Our experience has once more taught us that any faith that had its ideologies, religious leaders, pilgrim places and literature originated beyond India; certainly do not come within the framework of Hindu mindset. It needs to be audited that to what extent Christians, Muslims and other non-Hindu faiths in India have adopted the concept of secularism to live with Hindus – the local majority in India?

  • It is pertinent to say that even after providing full protection to Christianity under minority status, the clerics emphasize on their religion rather on nationalism. They say,
  • “When we talk of Christianity, our first allegiance should be to our Master Jesus Christ and after wards to our motherland”.
  • About Muslims, the less said is better. They have now intruded into the individual life styles of Hindus. Today, Hindus cannot celebrate their festivals, worship, build temples; and educate their children safely in their own home land.  Hindus did pay and are now again paying Jazia for pilgrimage jaunts abroad for minorities.
  • Islam and Christianity do not accept any common grounds with Hindu religion. They believe in killing of non-believers and conversion of Hindus to their fold through all means. Can we ‘Indianize’ Islam or Christianity in today’s secular environment? If not, why Hinduism should give up its place to accommodate other faiths in India that are hostile down to its roots?

As religious affinities always over flow political borders, it will be detrimental to the security of India to have alien religious settlements with political rights. Most of non-Hindu faiths do not accept to be governed by common civil code, adopt National Language, sing National Anthem and accept uniform syllabus for education that are necessary ingredients of national Unity. There is need to question their commitment to secularity.

Reckless Indulgence is suicidal

In the guise of preserving secularism, the communal forces have emerged as power-brokers against Hindus. Selfish politicians have been vying with each other to flatter minorities, by bartering the interests of Hindus to seek their electoral support. Secularism is being grossly misused as a cover, for sectionals and anti-national activities.

There no other secular country in the World that indulged in similar self-destructive appeasements.  After partition it has come to be the duty of every Hindu to keep minorities happy at every cost. Hindus and their customs are being disregarded in their own home land due to Nehru-Gandhi doctrines in particular.

Demographic Imbalance of Population

Our national resources are already sinking under the weight of population. Additional numbers add further to the strength of poor, under-nourished, illiterate, and unemployed citizens of this country. While Hindus have adopted smaller family norms, minorities, in spite of living on the verge of poverty line, have been averse to family planning. They have formed this attitude to increase their numerical strength for bargaining special rights and benefits for their community, and ultimately, converting India to an Islamic through ballot strength.

Our politicians have been foolish, but cunning to advertise boom in Muslim population as a credential for our secularism, without foreseeing its adverse implications. Though we claim to be the largest democracy in the world having largest population of Muslims, we have absolutely no say at any of the International Islamic forums. There we are cold shouldered as a Hindu and anti-Islamic country, and are always accused of committing atrocities against minorities.

Unpatriotic Intelligentsia

There are some unpatriotic intellectuals, who have been advocating opening of borders with Pakistan and Bangladesh, to facilitate unchecked flow of their nationals that separated from India out of hatred. While no Hindus would be allowed to settle in Pakistan and Bangladesh, Indian Muslims in the name of Islamic Brotherhood will shelter migrants. Once they grow up in numbers, Hindus will be living as they had lived during Muslim rule, because there is no change in their mindset. The stage will be set to re-enact Arab and the Camel episode.

Pakistan has followed the strategy of infiltration not only in Kashmir, but has now widened its scope to cover entire India, by establishing support bases in Muslim dominated areas. Our security forces, though capable of repulsing overt attacks, suffer causalities in home territory, because the militants can mingle with local Muslim population comfortably.

Development without Security

Unless Hindus get politically united, and make concentrated efforts to cope with the environment, Hinduism might be fading away from India in the near future. Political problems cannot be solved through spiritual discourses, but require timely political actions. Social and economic factors are subsidiary to that. Remaining indifferent is nothing, but suicidal escapism.

We do not require our secularism to be certified by other countries. As a sovereign nation, we have every right to re-interpret our secularism in the manner we like. There is nothing for Hindus to feel apologetic or concerned about. We are fortunate and proud to be Hindus! As custodians of this great human heritage, we have a sacred duty to preserve it for the generations to come. We need to replace secularism with Hindu Rashtra to restore Bharat Swabhimaan. Only then India will be a free country.

We have to choose between living freely in our home land as Hindus or hand over secular, fragmented India to others and die.

Chand K Sharma

(Next: Splashes – 71/72 – Hindu Empowerment)

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Splashes– 64/72 – India after Partition

India was neither partitioned on account of racial considerations, nor along geographical features. India was partitioned purely on the basis of religious hatred expressed by Muslims against Hindus. About ninety percent of Muslim population then living in India had opted for Pakistan as they did not want to live with Hindus. The aggression on India was thus legitimized.

After partition, Hindus were violently forced out of Pakistan, but only fifteen percent of Muslims actually moved to their newly found home-land. While Pakistan ethnically cleaned their country from religious diversities, India nourished the sectarian population to over grow at the behest of MK Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru.

Betrayal of Hindus by Congress

At the cost of sacrifices made by martyrs, Congress under Gandhi and Nehru had been negotiating with the British about the modalities concerning partition of India. Accordingly the British rewarded Congress leaders by transferring them power in truncated part of India. Gandhi and Nehru returned the gesture by accepting Lord Mountbatten, the British Viceroy to retain the charge of Governor General of India. That accorded further opportunities to him to manage the partition in the best interest of Britain and Pakistan at the expense of Hindu India.

Overtly, Congress leaders did not accept the reality of partition, but they rejoiced to celebrate their so-called independence. Since 1920 Gandhi and Nehru were the dominant leaders of Congress and had sidelined all Hindu representatives within Congress. They tried every opportunity to placate Muslims by bartering Hindu interests, but miserably failed in winning over their confidence. They accepted the partition, but blamed Muhammad Ali Jinnah and fanatic Hindus for that.

Projection of MK Gandhi as ‘Mahatma’ for Muslims and Hindus alike was far from truth. They remained confused by their idealism and attempted to keep all Indians confused by proclaiming the country to be secular. Gandhi and Nehru prevented Muslim population from migration towards Pakistan that Hindus had been forced to undertake. Even Muslim migrants were recalled from Pakistan to India and allowed to reclaim their properties from Hindu refugees evicted out of Pakistan. Thus Congress leaders made the invaders once again to remain share holders in truncated India also and subsequently nourished them as a vote bank.

One-sided Secularism

Like British, Congress leaders did not accept India’s centuries old identity as an abode of Hindus. Under the guise of phony secularism Congress leaders laid ground for India to be made a no man’s land, where anyone could intrude and reside as owner. Despite such sinister acts, only Hindus got bewildered with Congress brand secularism, while other minorities enjoyed the benefits of secularism without adopting the same. Cosmetic secularism could not erode beliefs and past. Hindus did not get any feel of freedom even in truncated India. They had to live with invaders with additional responsibility to keep them amused by pampering and appeasement.

It is pertinent that nationalities may change, but individuals always remain close to the religion inherited from forefathers. . Religion is a lifetime relationship, while citizenship is changeable. Despite having citizenship of pre-partitioned India, it was due to religion that Hindus and Sikhs had to migrate from their homes in Pakistan. They left ancestral homes and accepted displacement to live and die as Hindus. By migration Hindus categorically expressed that they were Hindus first and last, whatever nationality they might have had.

Post Partition Blunders

Hindus had struggled for freedom, not merely to replace British rulers with indigenous set of rulers, but to restore their ancient culture, prestige, freedom of thought, and their religious beliefs.  But after decades since partition, Hinduism is more neglected than during the alien rule. The problems confronting Hindu community arose out of political blunders of post partition rulers. Only few of those blenders that cast long shadows are stated here:-

  • Alienation with Our Past – Immediately after partition, Anglicized Nehru obliterated our past links with centuries old Hindu culture and history by declaring his mentor Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, as the ‘Father of the Nation’. We competed and aped Pakistan for whom their founder MA Jinnah could be regarded as the founder of newly formed nation, but there was no justification for us to introduce India to the world as a new-born nation, when our nationality since the Vedic period was well-known.
  • Abdication of Ancient Knowledge – In order to demonstrate his secularism, Nehru excluded study of our ancient text books from the educational curriculum. Over several learned scholars he picked up Maulana Azad to head our education ministry, to whom the Hindu scriptural texts were nothing but Kufar. Seen from hind sight it was a well thought conspiracy to obliterate our identity as Hindu nation. Only Muslims or anglicized Indians had the control over Educational system. As a result, today our youths are absolutely blank about the achievements of our ancestors.
  • Distortion of History – Apart from exclusion of Hindu texts from Education, our History was also distorted. Achievements of Hindu heroes like Maharana Pratap and Shiva ji were diminished to preserve our phony secularism. We under played the patriotic deeds of Hindus, to make Muslims appear larger than life in historical achievements.  Bahadur Shah Zafar, the last Mughal came to be a hero of first Independence struggle during 1857, even though he had secretly offered to surrender to the British at Humayon Tomb through Munshi Rajab Ali, when patriots were defending Delhi against odds.
  • Promotion of Nepotism – Except family tags of Gandhi and Nehru the sacrificial contributions of all other martyrs were diminished under a well thought out plan. Statues of Gandhi, Nehru and their clan members were installed, towns and hamlets were named after them and more than a thousand schemes were launched to advertise their names at government expense to strengthen one family rule in India. That went on un-noticed for few decades after partition till people discovered that even the antecedents of the family in power were dubious.
  • Neglect of National Language – The British had made illiterate India adopt English as their official Language, but Congress governments did not enforce Hindi as national language in India or a medium of instruction at University, the language in Courts or a language in defense forces.
  • Encouraging Segmentation – Instead of socially integrating all citizens under uniform civil code, the leaders indirectly encouraged minorities to stay aloof from majority community by retaining their personal laws. Over and above they encouraged segmentation within Hindu society by granting reservations on untenable grounds.

Lack of national Pride

Consequently, during post partition period, Hindu younger generation grew unaware of the achievements of their ancestors in the field of literature, pure sciences and arts. They suffer from a fundamental alienation from the tradition and culture of the land, and believe that prior to the introduction of British education, India had no system of education in any field. Convent educated English-speaking aristocracy and secularists pride in being disconnected from the very soil and people who gave it birth.

There is probably no other country in the world, where it is a national pastime among its educated class, to denigrate its own culture and history. They do not view anything of the past as a subject of national pride. It is ridiculed, as if it reflected only the imagination of backward chauvinistic elements.

Today, most often the educated people reject own scriptures without having read them. As a matter of fact they reject without having even seen them. At the best, few of them might have read some English translations, or commentaries on Hindu scriptures, made by foreigners. Their knowledge with regard to the translated scripture cannot be better than whatever was understood by the foreigner himself.  Hindu scriptures that once adorned the book shelves of world-famous ancient universities have come to be wrapped in sacks in the basements of few poor priests as antiques to be sold to foreign tourists.

While fundamentalist teachings in case of minorities have continued at the expense of state – recovered from Hindu tax payers, Hindu younger generation has got disillusioned in the absence of moral, ethical neglect of their culture at schooling stage itself.

Self-created Insecure Surrounding

Geographically, India is surrounded by theocratic states.  Most of our neighboring countries were Hindu countries but they have Islamic governments today. They have shut their doors at other faiths to preserve their Islamic identity. Their social customs do not harmonize with Hindu culture. They are ever motivated to convert India to an Islamic country, and are poised to help each other indirectly. In contrast, we created an oasis in the desert by declaring ourselves a secular state and kept our borders unguarded and open to encourage infiltration from all sides.

Our selfish political leaders always promise to walk extra miles to please Muslims for securing their selfish interests. They overlook that Nationality of any country can be acquired by fulfilling prescribed conditions, but it is the mental status of person that makes him a patriot.  It requires commitment from the individual in the value system, traditions and life style of the mainstream in the country. We never cared to check the extent of secularism that minorities had adopted in their thought and practices. Ours remained one-sided secularism to gag Hindus only.

Exploitation of Hindus

In spite of the freedom achieved through sacrifices given by Hindus, lack of political support to Hinduism has made Hindus to feel alienated in their own homeland. Now they are to face single-handedly the evangelization campaign of powerful and resourceful Christian lobby on one hand, and Islamic Jihad from Islamic states. There is an attitude of neglect and confrontation from pseudo secular home government. Hindu interests have become secondary to that of other faiths and are being bartered to any extent to keep minorities happy in India. This situation is due to the misplaced priorities of political leadership since transfer of power to them. Hinduism is passing through difficult time searching for effective leadership.

Chand K Sharma

(Next: Splashes – 65/72 – Anti Hindu Nexus)

Splashes– 63/72 – Era of British Rule

During Renaissance several nations from Europe raced to reach India, the name they associated with wealth, wisdom and mysticism. Hindu Kings had made India a Paradise and a destination for knowledge. In contrast, Muslim Rule converted India in to a living hell, drenched in blood, superstitions, and poverty but devoid of knowledge. Therefore after reaching India, the early Europeans must have been saddened as the land was not of their expectations. It was ridden with disease and illiteracy as compared to the awareness Europe had started experiencing.  Thus to some extent, the Europeans rightly called the native as savages, primitive, and snake charmers.

Dragnet of Colonization

Private companies from England, France, Portugal and Dutch had ventured into competition for taking away gains out of India. They came with advanced weaponry, ships, and above all patriotic fervor that Indians had not been left with. Though the colonial contingents were rivals against each other in Europe, they had common thread of Christianity to bind them. They were set to spread Christianity in their respective colonies and strengthened their hold by conversion of population to their faith by cruelty, coercion, deceit, and allurements.

It was easier for European nations to usurp political power by inter playing rivalries between feudal Nawabs and petty rulers. While Mughals were still busy enjoying Mujras and quil-fights, India slipped into another spell of foreign rule. The British out maneuvered the other competitors and established ‘East India Company Bahadur’ as a paramount power over local rulers.

Atrocities by the British

East India Company incorporated in England ruled the country till 1857. Thereafter the governance of India passed on to British Crown. The colonial rulers also followed the cruel and ruthless methods of the Islamic rulers for subduing natives, though they professed to be civilized.

They converted the poor population to Christianity. They could not motivate Brahmins, Khashatriyas and Vaishyas, but misled poor and illiterates by over-playing social and caste disparities.   Muslims were still in power in several regions. It was not easy for the Christians to convert them without inviting retaliation. Hindus being devoid of political power were easy targets for conversion.

Demeaning of religious traditions and atrocities motivated Indian masses to revolt in 1857 against the British with slogans like “Maro Firangi ko.”  Some rulers also joined the violent retaliation, but mainly due to their individual grudges against the British. For want of coordination between revolutionaries, and due to the support received by the British from Indian rulers, the mass revolt got crushed. Thereafter, the governance of India was taken over from East India Company by British Parliament.

Obliteration of Hindu Identity

British considered Hinduism to be a formidable barrier in establishing their hold over India, and therefore concentrated on dismantling the foundations of Hinduism, by projecting that to be faith of superstitions and blind faith. History of ancient India had already been destroyed by Islamic invaders. The India of 18th Century had nothing left about her pre-Muslim past. Indian History was reconstructed and to suit the current British rulers. Fortunately, archeological sites were brought under protection thereafter; otherwise we would not have had any trace left of our past.

Emergence of Anglicized Class

To pacify Indian masses on account of religious atrocities, and to legitimize their colonial rule in India, the British overtly distanced themselves from Christian missionaries, and started calling their government secular. Also they invented a theory of Aryan invasion of India to justify their own hold over India. For strengthening their hold they pacified masses through administrative reforms, to gain acceptability of their imperialist rule. Intellectual vacuum created by Islamic rule provided environment conducive for this purpose.

The British did introduce some reforms as well as modernization, but only to the extent necessary to strengthen their hold over the resources of the country. Laws were codified to replace Shariyat jurisprudence from India. A hierarchy of courts was set up to streamline system of justice that hitherto depended upon the whims of illiterate Qauzis (Islamic Jurists). Certain undesirable social practices were also abolished.

The British appointed Brahmins and Maulvies to act as amicus curie for British judiciary in interpreting Hindu and Muslim customs of inheritance. Till then Brahmins had been devoid of proper means of livelihood under Islamic rule, and had been living under fear and insult. This opportunity was exploited by some of them to stress more upon rituals than the substance in Hinduism.

New Education System

The British introduced an Education system recommended by Lord McCauley after prolonged deliberations held in British Parliament.  The curriculum was designed to project British as the custodians of all wisdom and scientific knowledge and tarnishing Hindu scriptures as mere farce founded on blind faith.  They succeeded in rearing a loyal workforce of anglicized Indians to support their government while they were in power, and even thereafter.

As a natural consequence, Hindus were more influenced by English culture than the Muslims, in the matter of dress, eating habits, socialization and education system. Gradually Western systems started replacing indigenous Indian systems. Hindus got used to Christian calendar, time schedules, weights and measure, distances, technical terminologies, legal terms and practices, and even recreational activities since our games and sports appeared to us primitive in glitter. European past times came to be regarded as status symbols.

Forum to distract Educated Indians

With far sightedness an Englishman Allan Octavian Hume founded Congress in 1885 as a political forum for neo educated Indians to vent out their political aspirations so that situations like 1857 revolt could be foreseen and avoided. They had nothing to worry about its activities, since that was founded by the British and worked under their supervision. Aristocrat Indians and some erstwhile Opium Business Partners of East India Company era were kept in the fore front to keep budding Indians satisfied by having some minor say in local self governance.

Subsequently when Leaders like Bal Gangadhar Tilak projected demand for freedom as a birth right the British got alerted. One by one such patriotic leader were jailed, and replaced by humble, soft-spoken, non-violent  leaders who had been trained in England and behaved Europeans in thought and tastes. The British media groomed and established them in Indian masses to emerge as their representatives. Basically illiterate at that time Indians hailed their indigenous English-speaking leaders by their outwardly charms.

Mental Slavery

Over the period British had a considerable strength of Indians to support their ideology. We accepted whatever they preached and acted. We started viewing everything was according to their point of view and willingly discarded whatever was unacceptable to them. Even we could not identify that whatever new knowledge British had brought with them was nothing more than already complied by our ancestors, because the same was presented to us using British technology.

Resurgence of Hindu Nationalism

However, changes in the environment ignited resurgence of Hindu Nationalism. Several movements of social reform such as Brahmo Samaj and Arya Samaj were started by Hindu intelligentsia. Participation of Indian soldiers as mercenaries of British government provided Indian common folks to get a feel of democratic freedom available to people on other part of the globe. Demand for political freedom grew in India at grass root level. On the whole, after the dark tunnel of Islamic rule, India could see the modern age dawning at the far end of the tunnel, through the reforms brought in by the British.

It was ironical that through British, Indians tasted the fruits, for which trees had been planted by Hindu sages long ago, and that had been devastated by Muslim barbarians. As the end products bore European tag of manufacture, the credit for modern advancement in the field of science and technology was claimed by western nations.  Hindu identity had been obliterated.

Freedom Movement

Gradually the demand for freedom got boost from several quarters. Due to heavy expenditure and loss of manpower in World Wars I and II, it became difficult for the British to continue hold over colonies. They were on look out to retreat safely without much loss to their men and materials. They used few educated Indians to play for time through various gimmicks in the form of Round Table Conferences by playing divide and rule between Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, and native rulers who had remained mainly supportive to the British. Finally the British diplomacy succeeded and Muhammad Ali Jinnah projected demand for Pakistan as a separate home land for Muslims by addressing a crowd in Lahore in 1940. Jinnah spoke:-

“Muslims were not just a minority, but also a nation, fully entitled to their own state. Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies, social customs and literature. They neither intermarry nor inter-dine together and indeed they belong to two different civilizations… They have different epics, different heroes, and different episodes. Very often the hero of one is the foe of the other…. During the ages, India has always divided into Hindu India and Muslim India. The present artificial unity of India dates back only to the British conquest… Muslims are nation according to any definition of a nation and they must have their territory and their state.”

Thus, India was partitioned between Muslims and Hindus on the basis of population. It turned easier for British to vacate the region safely and left India crippled.

Partition on Religious Ground

With partition of India between Hindus and Muslims, the transgressors, claimed a large chunk of Hindu land. The country’s borders shrunk over night to exclude Hindus as citizens from that area of newly formed Pakistan. Despite having held the tag of Indian Nationality, Hindus had to leave their ancestral land and homes. Thus Hindus had to surrender their motherland to Muslim invaders under pressure from British usurpers in spite of  verbose denials made by certain Indian leaders like Gandhi and Nehru, who had actually been signatory to the agreement.

Chand K Sharma

(Next: Splashes – 64/72 – India after Partition)

 

 

 

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