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Splashes -23/72 – Rationale of Varna System

Four natural broad working groups formed the backbone of the Hindu society. No vocation was considered high or low. All segments had to be working together for the common good.  Everyone was born as a Shudra to begin with. It was only after acquiring knowledge and skills that individuals moved to higher class. Non Hindus, out of these Varna were identified as Malechcha or Yavana. They were aliens to Hindu Society.

Dignity of Labor

Hindu society has given due importance to every kind of duty performed. Of all the functions Sevak Dharma (servitude) is regarded as highest form of duty alias Dharma. Lord Hanuman is regarded as an ideal role model in the performance of Sevak Dharma and has been honored as one amongst the five principal gods known as (Panchdeva). Dignity of labor is thus imbibed in Varna system.

Occupation based social Groups

Social grouping of Manu was based upon the mental make-up and aptitudes of persons according to the role they were required to perform in society. They were not based on birth of a person in any Varna. There is no country, no race, or society in this world, which is free from social segmentation in some form or the other, similar to caste system in Hindu society. Even in the so-called socialist countries, where all are claimed to be equal, some are more equal than others!

A society based on the division of labor is far superior to a society divided on the basis of wealth or color of the skin. For administrative convenience workers are divided in to several departments, trades and grades all over the world. The social differentiation on the basis of birth and race is still prevalent in Western world in the form of ‘lords’ and ‘commoners’, ‘whites’ and ‘blacks’. In the case in Islamic world Master (Aaqa) and slave (ghulaams) vocabulary is part of holy literature.  In Hinduism the distinctions were related to actual occupation of the person and not on the basis of race, color, or wealth.

Identical to Modren Life styles

The Indian Varna system encompasses all the aspects that management experts of today suggest regarding work culture, environment, and work ethos. Hindu life style prescribed for each Varna did not confine only to the work place, but also prescribed a way of life in totality. Brahmins need to be living an ascetic life, eating simple Satvik food consisting of non-alcoholic, vegetarian and low-calorie diet.  The Khashtriya are prescribed more nourishing and regal life style as Rajasik. For the remaining, it is Tamasik or a mix of Rajsik and Tamsik, keeping in mind that these strata of working groups required more physical energy.

oday in all health conscious societies, people are adopting dietary habits and living style suiting their work environment more or less similar to the type advocated in Hindu scriptures. In no way modern science of Personnel Management differ on this concept. Intellectuals prefer low-calorie Satvik food and life style; Executives live the Rajsik way, while rests indulge in Tamsik fast food and life style. Western counterpart of Tamsik food is known as junk food. Can this fact be denied that today hotels also advertise working lunch on similar classification as low-calorie Healthy Herbal food, Executive food and Economic packets made of Junk-food assortments?

Profession and Heredity

All members of nomadic groups were socially equal, but all civilized societies have segments depending upon educational differences, financial status, and occupations of persons. Almost in every country, individuals inherited family name, property and social status from parents, and retain the same till they earn or relinquish at their own.

Normally in every society a son adopted profession of his father, because having been brought up in the environment of his family, it was genetically natural for him to have similar genes, aptitude, and facilities for developing and improving skills needed for the family profession. On the other hand, since it was not practically feasible to predict the aptitudes of every individual for allotting profession at the time of birth. Thus heredity had come to be accepted as a working principle to suggest the most likely profession of every child. Subsequently, as the son easily inherited the traits, working and living environment of his father; he adopted the trade also of his father to carry forward family’s expertise and skills. The ‘thumb rule’ based on heredity was flexible and voidable in the past as it is today.

Exceptions to Heredity

There is enough evidence in the scriptures to show that persons adopted professions other than the Varna at their birth. Notable examples are that of Parshuram, Dronacharya and Kripacharya. They were Brahmans by birth, but turned warriors. Sage Vishwamitra was a Kshatriya, while Maharishi Valmiki was a Shudra, but they are respected and remembered today on the basis of their professions, and not because of their Varna at birth.

There have been several other cases where people born in lower castes have risen higher to saint-hood by their virtues and those born in the upper castes have been degraded due to their vices. Ravana was a highly learned Brahmin, but he is equated with evil as compared to Rama, who was a Kshatriya.

Sage Manu’s classification of society permitted Varna swapping also. He has recommended weaponry by Brahmins and even killing of Brahmins by others in the following verse:-

आत्मनश्च परित्राणो दक्षिणानां च संगरे। स्त्रीविप्राभ्युपपत्तौ चघ्नन्धर्मण न दुष्यति।।

गुरुं वा बालवृद्धौ वा ब्राह्मणं वा बहुश्रुतम्। आततायिनमायान्तं हन्यादेवाविचारयन्।।

– Manusumriti Chapter 8- 349-350

(It meant, when it is necessary to protect the learned and ladies, Brahmins and other castes should take up arms for the protection of Social Order of Dharma. Such violence is not sinful. Similarly if Guru, Brahmin, or any learned person runs amuck, he must be killed without any hesitation).

Thus, as and when Shudras, Vaisyas and Kshatriyas acquired knowledge and reformed habits, they empowered themselves to the upper castes.

For vested interests and vote bank politics, today Varna classification by the government is being done on the basis of heredity.  Like educational institutions issue degrees and diplomas to the learned, government is issuing certificate to the backwards. Ironically, today more Hindus clamor for obtaining a certificate of being backward than classified as learned persons.

Restrictions on Higher Education

The intelligence of person is dependent upon heredity as well as the environment in which he lived. The acquisition of higher education demands higher level of intelligence, which mediocre performers are not likely to possess. As resources cannot be wasted on persons lacking requisite intelligence, grasping power, and aptitude, non-performers get ousted from the realms of higher education everywhere. The restrictions on higher learning were not only in India but are prevalent all over the world even today. Aptitude test is nothing but a tool to gauge the potential of an individual for assessing his suitability to absorb higher education. All those who do not score the minimum prescribed grade on the aptitude test are barred admission.

It will be an unrealistic proposition to reform the entire world, since some diversity has been created by Nature even among brothers of same parentage and environment. People should be given equal opportunity and scope for development but not get walk-overs on account of birth certificate.

Restrictions for Common Good

Power of knowledge is a double-edged weapon that can be used for a good cause, as well as for pursuing evil designs, as per the mental make-up of the user.  Even those who create virus in computers are experts in the field of software; those who steel and sell kidneys are also doctors. They turn evils on the basis of their using their expertise.

There is a perfect illustration in Mahabharata. Having seen Eklaveyya misusing the archery skill to block the mouth of a poor dog, Guru Dronacharya incapacitated Eklaveyya from possessing superior technology. Today also, if nuclear technology is possessed by under developed nations, misuse the same is apprehended. But if the same is possessed by developed countries, it is taken for granted to be used to ensure peace. The precedence of Guru Dronacharya is being followed by USA and UNO alike.

There are many instances, when villains earned higher skills and capabilities through hard work initially, but the granting Rishis subsequently withdrew the same through a curse, when the same were misused.

Hygienic Segregation

Certain jobs in every society require persons to work in contaminated surroundings. For hygienic reasons, it is therefore necessary to restrain them from coming in contact with others in private as well as at public places. Operation Theaters in hospitals are not open to all, unless, the entrants adopt prescribed standards to disinfect. Likewise temples, kitchens, water sources, and other places of public utility are not open to persons employed on unclean jobs. This is legitimate restriction that speaks high of awareness in ancient Hindu society towards public sanitation.

It is desirable even today. One would not like to come in contact even with nearest relation, who is habitual of keeping poor personal hygiene. While certain upper classes, due to cumulative effect of multiple reasons, over practiced un-touch ability, certain persons to malign Hindu religion have also over played it for political reasons.  It was to engineer conversion to other religions for changing the demographic profile of population for imperialist designs.

Shudras are an inseparable integral part of Hindu society and not a race different from other Varna of Hindu society. It is not to be confused with racial discrimination that is practiced in other parts of the civilized world. Segregation of some people from Shudra with poor hygiene was nothing but a method to enforce desirability of maintaining cleanliness at public places.

With the introduction of modern technology and constitutional regulatory provisions, this issue is now irrelevant. Some self-styled politicians have kept the same alive to nurture their vote banks. It is ironical that most of such leaders never advised people at lower pedestals to move up through hard work and genuine knowledge. They want them to continue.

Chand K Sharma

Next: Splashes – 24/72 – Status of Women in Hindu Society)

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Splashes – 14 – Mahabharata is Grand Panorama

This epic was earlier known as Bharat Samhita. Because it vividly depicted philosophy and life style, it was counted as Pancham Veda also. The title Mahabharata was subsequently assigned to it.

Cultural Importance

Mahabharata is the most voluminous epic that portrays all aspects of Indian life on a grand scale. The epic contained one million verses (shalokas), composed in Sanskrit by sage Ved Vyasa. It has been translated in almost all the languages of the world and has inspired many authors not only of India, but of different languages in the world. The theme of Mahabharata has been used in all the literary formats ranging from poetry, narration, comics, drama, operas and cinematic productions. The episodes of the epic have been used as themes in all the dance forms of India. The grandeur of the epic is most befitting subject for films using latest technology and has the potential to surpass the classics like Ben Hur, Lord of the Rings, and Harry Potter.

While Ramayana depicts Treta Yuga, Mahabharata is cast in Dwapar Yuga and culminates in the beginning of Kaliyuga of our present times. Some characters of both the epics are common, like Deva Rishi Narada, Parshurama, and Hanuman. They provide a bridge to connect us with Treta and Dwapar yuga. It is primarily the story of Kauravas and Pandavas clans to which other contemporary dynasties of Dwapar Yuga have been skilfully woven, culminating in war on a grand scale for eighteen days. Every character makes an entry with his past and can be visualized in flesh and blood with all the possible human strengths and weaknesses. While Ramayana portraits the main character Rama discharging his obligations in the roles of an obedient son, a caring husband, an affectionate brother, a sincere friend, an ideal king, and a loving father; Mahabharata depicts various situations of human society wrapped in all the shades of passion.

It is pertinent to mention that Hindu epic writers exercised self censor ship. The accounts giving details about the birth of Dhritrashtra, Pandu and Vidur and later their sons, have been allegorically camouflaged to avoid vulgarity. The descriptions of wars and other incidents are metaphorical and are not to be taken in literal sense to denounce or disbelieve the epic. However whatsoever had been narrated is medically and scientifically getting possible in our day to day happenings now.

The Environment

The environment is that of a well-developed grand civilization. Mahabharata covers the entire length and breadth of not only India but its characters travel up to heavens and the under-world also. They are depicted larger than life but are every inch humans like us today. There is less appearance of Rakhshasas in Mahabharata than in Ramayana. That indicates transformation of society and passage of time.

The battle of Mahabharta was fought on the battle field of Kurukshetra, and the same was narrated to King Dhritrashtra through live running commentary of his charioteer Sanjay. Combined strength of the rival armies of Kuruvas and Pandavas was 18 Akhshoni. Each Akhshoni consisted of 21870 chariots, 21870 elephants, 109350 infantry soldiers and 65610 horsemen, thus it works out to be more than the size of today’s corps formation in the army. There is rank structure of commanders, like Senapati, Commander in Chief and Maharathi equivalent of army commanders and so on. Both rivals had set their War Headquarters at Kurukshetra, but battles are depicted being fought at different locations under respective army commanders. The kind of operations, fortifications, tactics, and use of weaponry has a semblance of ancient world war.

Both armies had agreed to observe strict code of conduct, the kind of Geneva Conventions we have today. Injured, unarmed and unequal were not to be attacked. The war was restricted only to the battle field and no civil population was to be harmed. The war commenced each day at daybreak with blowing of warning through conch shells and ended at sunset. Thereafter even the rival commanders could freely move and socially interact with their counterparts.

The war culminated in the total destruction of Kuruvas and only few survived in the Pandava clan. The net outcome for both was waste of men and materials; a lesson human society still needs to remember.

Historical Relevance 

There is no clear cut historical account available about the History of India after Mahabharata period till we restore our links with ancient India during the time of Chandragupta Maurya. We need further to re-establish missing link through Puranas and epics.  Ramayana, Mahabharata and Puranas are rich sources lying untapped by historians as epics and folk literature to re-structure and verify our historical records.

It is undisputed that Divine Right Theory of kingship was followed all over the world since the dawn of civilization, and is continuing today also under the guise of constitutional monarchy, in some countries. It was earlier customary to affiliate the origin of  ruling family to some god to impress the legitimacy of their rule. The solar (Suryavanshi) and lunar (Chandravanshi) dynasties are the oldest all over the world amongst ruling dynasties. The Solar dynasties got spread out in India and countries in South East Asia while the lunar dynasties were scattered in China, Syria, Middle East and Egypt. Even today, Sun and Moon are regarded as prominent deities in some form in those areas.  Ramayana was the epic of Suryavanshi clans, while Mahabharata is mainly concerned with Chandravanshi clan. Both had their origin in India.

Ethical Importance

About twenty thousand verses of the epic refer to statesmanship, diplomacy, protocols, ethics and observance of Dharma. As a matter of fact the entire conflict is about victory of Dharma over Adharma. There is galaxy of exponants on the subject in the person of Krishna, Bheeshama, Dronacharya, Shakuni, Shalya and Vidura. Their statements continue to inspire subsequent generations also .

Even the feminine element of Hindu society is aptly reflected in strength in Mahabharta epic. Unlike Ramayan’s Sita  is seen suffering in lonliness, women play greater role in Mahabharta throughout right from providing the cause to the war and the consequences thereafter.

Srimad Bhagvad Gita 

Shrimad Bhagvad Gita is the philosophical part of epic Mahabharata. It is the longest philosophical poem in the world literature. It is in the form of a dialogue between Lord Krishna and prince Arjuna at the outset of Mahabharata war. It contains the gist of Upanishads and every thing of Hindu philosophy in nut shell.

The philosophy of Gita is most subtle, universal, and scientific and can be the guiding principle for every one under all situations. In brief the message is:

  • God appears to restore every thing in order whenever displacement to the natural order is caused.
  • God is the source of everything. He is omnipotent, omnipresent and omniscience.
  • Death is only to the body. Soul never dies.
  • Life and death have been continuing in cyclic order and shall continue.
  • Ultimately good always wins over evil.
  • All pray to the same God. In whatever form we worship, God fixes our faith to that very form.
  • One should do the work that suits him best and dedicate all actions to God.
  • One should discharge the assigned duty with out claiming credit for good and without fear, hesitation, or blame for the bad result as long as the intentions of the doer are pure and selfless.
  • Non violence is the greatest Dharma, so too is righteous violence for the protection of Dharma.
  • One has control only on his actions but not on the result.
  • One should do his duty without expecting any thing in return.
  • Excessive indulgence in every thing is bad.

In Shrimad Bhagvad Gita the sadhnas (practices) for self development have been classified under four broad categories called Yogas:

  1. Karma Yoga is the path of ‘Activism’ suited to the active type. It implies discharging duties to the best of ability and conscience, without getting attached, either to the fruits thereof.
  1. Bhakti Yoga is more suitable to overcome frustrations in life. It suggests loving God with heart and soul and surrendering completely to His will. It is passively doing the duties as they come without taking credit of being a ‘doer’.
  1. Raja Yoga is the path of activism with calculated risks. Raja Yoga prescribes an eight-fold discipline leading to sound mind in healthy body. The eight stages of Yoga are identical to Yogasutras.
  1. Gyana Yoga is ideal for those endowed with a sharp intellect and a keen power of discrimination. It is the approach of a perfectionist leaving nothing to chance and calls for practicing and exercising greatest controls in every aspect of life. Obviously this approach is the hardest, and to be followed by the few.

The Middle Path is a balanced combination of all the Yogas, with more of one and less of others depending upon one’s temperament. The emphasis is on doing one’s duty and leaving the rewards to the Superior being is common to all.

The philosophy underlined in Gita is the ancient most known to the mankind, and has universal appeal. It is practically relevant under all circumstances to everyone, and everywhere. Gita being the crux of Hindu philosophy can be termed as a simple and abridged substitute for all other religious texts for the laymen as well as for scholars on Hinduism.

Chand K Sharma

(Next: Splashes – 15/72- Puranas are Earliest Narratives)

Splashes– 8/72 – Government of Universe

Long before Aristotle and European exponents propounded their Political theories about Governance and Management, Santana Dharma in India had already conceptualized a comprehensive blue print of System at work in the entire Universe.  It can still serve as text-book for our modern political thinkers and management gurus because division of various departments, work responsibility, job descriptions of various functionary deities and infrastructure available to them have remained all the same for Governments all over the world till date. Only nomenclature and gadgets have been added because of developments in Science and Technology.

Celestial Government

Similar to Hinduism, Pagan mythologies all over the world also have followed the same concept and pattern of Celestial Government to explain functioning natural phenomena. In every mythology there are angels and subordinate gods to execute the commands of the Supreme God. Only the names of angels, subordinates, assignments and physical descriptions have been varied to suit local environment. In every mythology, Satanic forces are constantly working against the Supreme God. Humans are always in the crossfire of Good and the Evil.

There are subtle variations also. While in other scriptures, God is dependent on few messengers, relatives or representatives to get His commands executed, in Hinduism there is an array of 33 crore subordinate gods to manage the Universe. All of them are identified with the Planets of our solar system and elements of ecology in our environment. In other scriptures the messengers are seen making to and fro movements on the planet earth only, while the system under Hindu concept is applicable to entire cosmos already discovered or yet to be discovered. The Systems of Celestial Government work faster than modern telecommunications are at work today. Hindu visualization of the management of the Universe can be easily compared with contemporary governments as well as organizations in corporate sector.

The capital of Universe or Head Office of the Government is located in Swarga Loka, (Heaven), at Amravati.

Indra Indra is the Chief of Devas (subordinate gods), and the master of Heavens. He is The ‘Viceroy’ of Supreme God, since the Almighty does not interfere in the day-to-day administration of Universe. As Head of the Celestial Government, Indra applies all the tools and tactics of modern governance that CIA and KGB devised later and apply even today. Indra does not shy away even from the use of all kinds of powers and allurements, including the use of wine, wealth of boons and women, to achieve his objectives as well as to ensure the security of heavens. Since nothing moves without power is a scientific principle, Indra holds all the sources of power under his personal charge. Thus he is the god of Thunder, Rain and Lightning.  His main weapon is Vajra but in addition he has several other powerful weapons that he continues bestowing to his vassals and confidants. He deals appropriately with the learned Rishies and also with the wicked. His life style and actions match the Chief Executive of any global corporation of modern times. He rides the costliest vehicle, the proverbial white elephant named Airawat, and lives in riches and luxuries one could imagine even today. It is essential quality of every ruler and CEO to possess finer tastes. Thus Indra is all the time surrounded with supreme luxuries, beautiful Apasras and Gandharvas (artists) who are exponents of music and dance and are ever ready to be deployed at shortest notice to entertain or seduce the targets.  Indira’s wife Shachi is a well versed, beautiful and a model of an accomplished spouse of evry top man in every respect.

Agni Fire god is next to Indra. Therefore, like taxes, all sacrifices made to gods reach their destination through Agni. He represents the power that digests the food and is present in every living being. In art Agni is represented red and two-faced, suggesting his destructive and beneficent properties. Scientifically, every object changes its appearance when processed through fire. Agni is always sought as a witness in all rituals since Agni maintains a constant shape throughout irrespective of the combustion material used. Other materials like Water and Wind many times change their form under different conditions.

Surya (Sun) –The Sun at the center point of our solar system is the visible deity for us. There are several Suns in universe but the Surya of our solar system is representative of all. Sun god is regulating almost everything that affects life on our planet. In the larger context, Sun is also the time-keeper of respective solar systems as well.

Vayu (Wind) – No life is possible in vacuum without Vayu alias Pawan Deva or Maruta. Wind helps the Jada kind of life also to regenerate and is running the most essential service for all living beings. He is present in every living being.

Varuna (Water) – He is the master of water, another essential commodity in the Universe. Varuna stores reserve stocks of water in the form of ice. With the help of Sun and Wind he transforms water into clouds and gets the same transported periodically all over the globe. Such a stupendous job if contracted today would involve millions of tankers, workforce and unimaginable infrastructure. Like wind, he is present in every living being.

Yama – He is the god of Death. He manages the department of recycling in the Universe. Without Yamaraj life would be miserable on earth. If Death was not there Chingez Khan, Babur, Aurangzeb, Nadir Shah and many of the past characters would have been around us.

Kuber – Kuber, with his headquarters at Alkapuri, is the god of wealth. He bears the image of present day’s money-lender and finance advisers. The difference lies in the fact that Kuber is always a giver and never takes anything in return. Thus no financer in the world can afford to be as large-hearted as Kuber.

Mitra – In worldly affairs Mitra appears as the god of honesty, friendship, and contracts, a fore runner of Public Relation Administration ever ready to say ‘may I help you’.

Kama – Kama Deva is the god of love, and is comparable to the designation of Director of Generation. Without him no life can be perceived in this Universe. With wife Rati the couple can surpass all the fantasies of modern generation. His body was said to have been destroyed by Shiva’s wrath to suggest that existence of Kama impulse in body of all living beings is only a mental state. In comparison to other mythologies, one fails to understand the depiction of cupid as a child carrying a bow and flowery arrow doing pranks here and there to inspire ‘saints’ like Valentine!

Aditi (limitless) – She is a goddess of consciousness, the past, the future and fertility.

Dharamraj and Chitragupta – They are the record Keepers of Brahma the creator, and Yama, the god of Death. Their primary role is to compile various inputs concerning all living beings and coordinate the activities between Birth Office, Death Cell, and managing boarding and lodging activities in Heaven and Hell as per the standing instructions of the Almighty.

All the attributes associated with the gallery of gods are Vedic gods and can be rationalized separately in detail, but here only a glimpse of portfolios has been mentioned for the sake of brevity. The Organizational Structure has been depicted in out line. Whereas Non-Hindu scriptures depict God Almighty relying upon his only son, or only representative as agents to influence favors or punishments for believers and non believers on the date of Judgment, according to Hindu concept a transparent system is continuously at work, totally free from any intermediate The concept of management visualized thousands of years ago contains all the elements of Modern Organization consistently working at optimal level.

Women Representation

Although Britain claims to be the mother of Democracy in the world, yet women were granted voting rights in 1932.  The condition of women in Islamic world is an open secret. In contrast importance of women in Hindu mythology has never been over looked. It also underlines the division of responsibilities and complimentary status of males and females. The power of granting boons and curses is equally available to the spouse of gods and they are more or less on equal footing. The gods do respect their wives and are never alone. Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva are married to goddesses Sarsawati (Knowledge), Lakshami (wealth) and Durga (Power) respectively. The pairing of godly spouses is based on rationality. Creativity requires knowledge, preservation requires material wealth and destruction requires physical force.  Accordingly Brahma the Creator is wedded to Sarsawati, Preserver Vishnu is married to Lakshami and Shiva, the destroyer has Shakti Durga as his consort.  The positive and negative aspects of knowledge, wealth and Power are depicted by the flowers and weapons carried by the goddesses. Knowledge, Wealth and Power are to be acquired through efforts by men. Unless preserved and used these can be usurped easily by others. Vedic verses assigned to various gods and goddesses contently explain their physical attributes characteristics, properties and functions.

Other prominent Celestial Beings

There are many ever-living characters described in Hindu scriptures. Each one represents some trait or attribute. It is the greatness of Hindu Religion that animals and plants have also been given due importance. Some other ever-living mythological heroes are:-

Ganesha is the god of Wisdom.  As wisdom is a pre-requisite for every action, Ganesha is worshiped first in every prayer, to ward off as hurdles in every activity. His blessings are invoked by reciting Ganesha’s mantras before every auspicious work is begun. Ganesha has a human body, an elephant’s head and a mouse as His vehicle. Riding on a mouse, one of nature’s smallest creatures and having the head of an elephant, the biggest of all animals, denotes that Ganesha is the creator of all creatures. It also denotes the process of evolution.

Kartikeya is the god of masculinity and war and commander-in-chief of the armies of the gods. He rides a peacock.

Narada Rishi is the Sage of the gods and is ever-living. He moves about in the three worlds and can be rightly called as the patron predecessor of media-men and a fore-runner of moving data bank. He is supposed to know everything that is happening at any place to keep the Almighty informed. He can appear at any place and at any time. It is very unfortunate that he is often sarcastically depicted as a comic character in films and literature. Hindus possess a sharp sense of humor even to laugh at oneself. No media person ever reached the excellence in performance anywhere close to Narda Rishi.  He is also founding father of musical school of thought and an expert Veena player.

Hanuman is the living embodiment of an ideal selfless worker, and a true Karma Yogi (Man of Action). He lived to serve  Sri Rama. He was humble, brave, and wise and possessed all the divine virtues. He never boasted of his bravery and intelligence. He is also regarded as founding father of another school of music, besides known for his wisdom, diplomacy and physical power. He is the patron deity of all wrestlers. He is credited to have earned and bestowing eight capabilities (Siddhies) which are Anima (to become invisible), Laghima( size reduction), Garima (size expansion), Prapti ( acquiring some thing), Prakmaya (accomplishing desired action), Mahima( fame), Ishvtva (god like power) and Vashitva ( ability to control others). Apparently those may sound exaggeration but today any ordinary person can feel Anima, Laghima, Garima through touch screen computers and animation techniques. Hanuman never boasted about his achievements and was always humble.

The Hindu mythology developed side by side of abstract philosophy as a training aid for visualization of the concept. It was continuously updated to keep pace with the developing thought process. Source of Hindu mythology can be traced in Vedic, Puranic and Epic literature. Hindu Mythology is the most fascinating animation of various personified traits. It is a blend of rich imagination and reality.

Chand K Sharma

Next: Splashes -9/72- Incarnations of Vishnu

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